Business Planning for Success
07 January 2013

Whether you are just starting out or ready to expand your enterprise, a business plan is your blueprint for success. Projecting three to five years into the future, a business plan articulates your business goals and clarifies your path to achieving those goals.

A business plan is essential to attracting investment for startups. It is also an important tool for managing and expanding an established business.

Because each business is different, each business plan is different. But every business plan should contain the following elements:

Executive Summary

This section offers a snapshot of your business plan. It touches on your business’s mission, history, organization and structure. The executive summary should provide a brief overview of your products or services, your strategy for marketing your products or services, and a summary of projected sales, profits and cash flows.

If you are using your business plan to attract investment, the executive summary should also state how much capital you need and how you intend to use it.

Because the executive summary encapsulates the entire business plan, it will be the last section you write — and the first section of your business plan.

Business Description

This section explains what your business does. It includes your business’s history, mission, organizational structure and strategy for marketing. It should also cover administrative issues such as business location, legal structure and personnel, and explain how you will handle accounting, insurance, legal and security matters.

Market Analysis

This section describes your industry, the market for your products or services and the competition your business faces. Whether you hire a market-research company or use the Internet, your market analysis should be based on real data and demonstrate how your business will be successful. Your market analysis describes your industry’s current size, historic growth and trends; pinpoints your target market, its distinguishing characteristics and needs; and identifies your competition, its strengths and its weaknesses.

Organization and Management

This section captures the organizational structure of your business and the background of its key people. It discusses your business’s divisions, their respective responsibilities and how they interact. Including organizational charts can be a good way to convey this information visually. You should also include the experience and responsibilities of your business’s executives. Show how each will help your business achieve its goals.

Product or Service

In this section, you should highlight the product(s) or service(s) your business provides and what makes it superior to the competition. Show how your product or service will satisfy a need in your target market and help your business maintain a competitive advantage. You should also include the scheduling, costs and personnel needed to deliver your product or service, along with any potential risks and how you will mitigate those risks.

Marketing and Sales Strategy

This section details how you will market and sell your product or service. The marketing strategy includes how you will identify and attract customers; how you will grow your business; how you will distribute your product or service; and how you will communicate with your target market. The sales strategy outlines how you intend to sell your product.

Funding Request (Optional)

If you are using your business plan to attract investors, this section should state the capital your business requires and how your business will use that capital.

Financial Projections

This section forecasts the future financial health of your business. It should include three documents: an income statement projecting how much your company will earn or lose; a cash-flow statement illustrating how much cash your business will need and where that cash will come from; and a balance sheet reflecting how much your business will own versus how much it will owe. A good business plan provides monthly projections for the first year, quarterly projections for the second year, and annual projections for your plan’s remaining years. To ensure parity, you should complete this section after your organizational and marketing sections. Established businesses should also provide historical financial data. Income statements, cash-flow statements and balance sheets for the previous five years should suffice.

Appendix

This section includes supplemental materials such as resumes of your company’s leaders, product designs, complete market analysis, legal documents and reference letters. The appendix should be provided on an as-needed basis — especially if it contains sensitive information.

Once you have completed your business plan, review it regularly to monitor the progress of your business and make necessary adjustments.

Keep a record of every business plan you distribute. This allows you to update all copies of your business plan — and ensures your information stays in the right hands. If you plan to give your business plan to private investors, include a private placement disclaimer. This disclaimer prohibits the investor from distributing your information and should be placed at the beginning of your business plan.

The U.S. Small Business Administration sponsors a website that offers ideas for business plans and other helpful information at business.usa.gov.



Read more: http://iipdigital.ait.org.tw/st/english/pamphlet/2013/01/2013010314...

This site is managed by the U.S. Department of State. External links to other Internet sites should not be construed as an endorsement of the views or privacy policies contained therein.

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該討論的回覆

有計劃,才有成功
2013.01.07

無論您是剛開始創業還是準備擴大現有企業規模,企業計劃將是您成功的藍圖。企業計劃作出對未來三至五年的展望,闡明您的經營目標以及去實現這些目標的途徑。

企業計劃是初創企業吸引投資的關鍵,也是管理和拓展現有業務的重要工具。

由於每個企業各不相同,每項企業計劃也有所不同。但是每項企業計劃都應包括以下要素:

概要Executive Summary

這部分是您企業計劃的梗概,涉及企業的使命、歷史、組織結構。在這部分應簡要介紹您的産品或服務、您行銷産品或服務的戰略以及預期銷售額、利潤和資金流量。

如果您要用企業計劃來吸引投資,則還應在這裡説明您需要的資金量以及計劃如何使用資金。

鋻於概要是對整個企業計劃的概括,因此需要留到最後來寫——但它應是企業計劃的第一章節。

業務介紹(Business Description

這部分是對您企業業務的説明。它包括企業的歷史、使命、組織結構和行銷戰略。還應含括諸如經營地點、法律結構和人員等行政事項,並解釋您將如何處理財會、保險、法律和安全事務。

市場分析(Market Analysis

這部分介紹您的行業、您的産品或服務的市場情況以及您的企業所面臨的競爭。無論您是雇用市場調研公司還是利用網際網路,市場分析都應基於真實數據,並表明您的企業將如何獲得成功。您在市場分析中需介紹行業目前的規模、發展歷史和趨勢,確切指出您的目標市場及其主要特點和需求,並明確您的競爭對手及其強弱點。

組織與管理(Organization and Management

這部分應描述您企業的組織結構和主要人員的背景。您在這裡介紹企業的各個部門、其各自的職責以及各部門如何相互配合。提供組織結構圖可以是一個不錯的直觀説明方式。您還應在這部分介紹企業主管人員的經驗和職責,並説明他們每一個人將如何幫助企業實現目標。

産品或服務(Product or Service

在這部分,您應重點説明您企業提供的産品或服務,以及它們優於競爭對手的特徵。同時,您應介紹您企業的産品或服務將如何滿足目標市場的需求和使您的企業保持競爭優勢。您還應説明提供産品或服務所需的時間計劃、成本和人員,以及任何可能存在的風險和您將如何減輕這些風險。

行銷和銷售戰略(Marketing and Sales Strategy

這部分詳細介紹您將如何把産品或服務推向市場和銷售。行銷戰略包括您將如何識別和吸引客戶、拓展業務、經銷産品或服務以及如何與目標市場溝通。銷售戰略則需概述您準備如何銷售産品。

資金需求Funding Request)(此項非必需)

如果您需要用企業計劃來吸引投資者,則此部分應説明您的企業所需資金以及使用資金的方式。

財務展望Financial Projections

這部分是對您企業未來財務健康狀況的預測。它應包括三個文件:一份預測您公司未來盈虧的損益表、一份説明您公司將需要多少現金以及現金來源的現金流量表以及一份反映您企業將擁有多少資産和債務的財務狀況表。一份良好的企業計劃會提供第一年的月度預測、第二年的季度預測以及該企業計劃涵蓋的其餘年份的年度預測。為了確保平衡,此部分應放在組織和行銷部分之後完成。已經存在的公司還應提供歷史財務數據,一般用過去五年的收益表、現金流量表和資産負債表即可。

附錄(Appendix

在此部分放入各種補充材料,例如您公司負責人的簡歷、産品設計、完整的市場分析、法律文件和推薦信。附錄應根據需要提供——如果包含敏感資訊則更應如此。

在完成制定企業計劃後,應定期給予審視以監督企業的進展狀況,並作必要調整。

將每一份發出的企業計劃備案。這有助您對企業計劃的所有副本進行更新,確保您的資訊掌握在恰當的人手中。如果您準備將企業計劃提供給私人投資者,請將一份有關這種私人提供的預先聲明一併附上。這項預先聲明禁止私人投資者發佈您的資訊,它應被置於企業計劃之首。

有關企業計劃的樣本,可見: http://business.usa.gov/



Read more: http://iipdigital.ait.org.tw/st/chinese/pamphlet/2013/01/2013010714...

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